THE

JOURNAL

o*

THE LINNEAN SOCIETY.

i iwi

BOTANY.

VOL. XX. Q

' GA1 -

LON D ( ) N : SOLD AT THE SOCIETY'S APARTMENTS, BURLINGTON HOUSE,

AND BY

LONGMANS, GREEN, READER, AND DYER,

AND

WILLIAMS AND NORGATE.

1884.

Dates of Publication of the several Numbers included in this Volume.

Nob.

No.

(123," 1124,.

pp. 1- 24, published

December 18, 1882.

125,

25- 86,

February 28, 1883.

126,

87-158,

March 24, 1883.

127,

159-236,

April 16, 1883.

128,

237-313,

June 6, 1883.

129,

313-416,

September 24, 1883.

130,

417-464,

April 26, 1884.

131,

465-515,

April 28, 1884.

PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED HON COURT, FLEET STREET.

LIST OF PAPERS.

Page

Armit, Capt. William E., F.L.S., F.R.G.S.

Notes on certain Plants of North-western Queensland possess- ing valuable Medicinal Properties 69

Baker, J. G., F.R.S., F.L.S.

Contributions to the Flora of Madagascar. Part I. Polypetalse.

(Plates XXII. & XXIII.) 87

Contributions to the Flora of Madagascar. Part II. Mono-

petake. (Plates XXI V.-XX VII.) 159

Contributions to the Flora of Madagascar. Part III. Incom-

pletae, Monocotyledons, and Filices 237

Recent Additions to our Knowledge of the Flora of Fiji 358

A Review of the Tuber-bearing Species of Solanum. (Plates

XLI.-XLVI.) 489

Balfour, Professor I. Bayley, D.Sc, F.L.S.

Description of a new Species of Pandanus, as a Note to Mr. J. G. Baker's Paper on the Flora of Fiji 416

Bennett, Alfred W., M.A., B.Sc, F.L.S.

Reproduction of the Zygnemaceae ; a Contribution towards the Solution of the Question, Is it of a Sexual Character ? (With 8 woodcuts.) 430

Bentham, George, F.R.S.

On the Joint and Separate Work of the Authors of Bentham and Hooker's ' Genera Plantarum' 304

Bolus, Harry, F.L.S.

Contributions to South- African Botany.— Orchidete 467

Bower, Frederick Orpen, M.A., F.L.S.

On the Structure of the Stem of ffliynchopetalum montanum,

Fresen. (Plates XXX VI.-XXXVIII.) 440

Note on the Gemmae of Aulacomnion paluxtre, Schwaegr. (With

4 woodcuts.) 465

IT

Clarke, Chas. Baron, F.R.S., F.L.S.

On Hemicarex, Benth., and its Allies. (Plate XXX.) 374

Cleve, Professor P. T., of Upsala.

On the Diatoms collected during the Arctic Expedition of Sir George Nares 313

Cooke, M. C, LL.D., A.L.S.

The Structure and Affinity of Sph&ria pocula, Schweinitz. (Plate XL VII.) 508

Cromble, Rev. James M., F.L.S., and Dr. William Nylander, F.M.L.S.

On a Collection of Exotic Lichens made in Eastern Asia by the late Dr. A. C. Maingay 48

Cromble, Rev. James M., F.L.S.

Additions to the Lichens of the ' Challenger ' Expedition 82

Dyer, W. T. Thiselton, M.A., C.M.G., F.R.S., F.L.S., Assistant Director Royal Gardens, Kew.

Note on the Origin of Cassia lignea 19

Notes on some new Economic Products recently received at the Royal Gardens, Kew 404

Gardner, J. Starkie, F.G.S.

Alnus Richardsoni (Petrophiloides, Bowerbank), a Fossil Fruit from the London Clay of Heme Bay. (Plate XXXI.) 417

Green, J. R., B.Sc, Scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge.

On the Organs of Secretion in the Hypericaceae. (Plates XXXIX. & XL.) 451

Hemsley, W. Botting, A.L.S.

On the Synonymy of the Orchidaceous Genus Didymopleris, Griffith, and the Elongation of the Pedicels of D. pollens after Flowering. (Plate XXVIII.) 308

Hooker, Sir Joseph D., K.C.S.I., Director Royal Gardens, Kew.

Preliminary Note to Prof. Watt's Indian Species of Primula . . 1

Howard, John Eliot, F.R.S., F.L.S.

On Cinchona Calisaya, var. Ledyeriana, How., and C. Ledgeriana (Moens) 317

Page

Kitton, F., Hon. F.R.M.S.

On some Diatomaceae from the Island of Socotra. (Plate XL VIII.) 518

Lister, Miss G.

On the Origin of the Placentas in the Trihe Alsineee of the Order Caryophyllese. (Plates XXXII.-XXXV.) 423

Masters, Maxwell T., M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S.

On the Passifloreae collected by M. Edouard Andre" in Ecuador and New Granada. (Plates XIX. & XX.) 25

Murray, George, F.L.S., Assistant, Department of Botany, British Museum, and Lecturer on Botany, St. George's Hospital.

On the Outer Peridium of Broomeia. (Plate XXIX.) 311

Nylander, Dr. William, F.M.L.S., and the Rev. James M. Crombie, F.L.S.

On a Collection of Exotic Lichens made in Eastern Asia by the late Dr. A. C. Maingay 48

Plowright, Dr. Charles B.

On the Life-history of jEcidium bellidis, DC 511

Potter, M. C, B.A., St. Peter's College, Cambridge.

On the Development of Starch-grains in the Laticiferous Cells of the Euphorbiaceae. (With 4 woodcuts.) 446

Ridley, Henry N., M.A., F.L.S., Assistant, Botanical Department, British (Natural-History) Museum.

Teratological Notes on Plants. 1. (With 3 woodcuts.) 45

Descriptions and Notes on new or rare Monocotjledonous Plants from Madagascar, with one from Angola 329

Rolfk, R. A., Herbarium Royal Gardens, Kew.

On the Selagineae described by Linnaeus, Bergius, Linnaeus fil., and Thunberg 338

Tepper, J. G. Otto, F.L.S.

Discovery of Tasmanian Plants near Adelaide, South Australia. 72 Remarkable Malformation of the Leaves of Beyeria opaca, F. v.

Mueller, var. linearis (Bentham, Flora Austral, vi. 65).

(Plate XXL) 84

Watt, George, M.B., CM., F.L.S., Professor of Botany, Bengal Educational Service, Calcutta.

On some Undescribed and Imperfectly known Indian Species of Primula and Amlrosace. (Plates I.-XVIII.) 1

VI

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES.

Plate

I.

II.

III.

IV.

V.

VI., VII.

VIII.

IX.

X.

XI.

XII.

XIII.

XIV.

XV.

XVI.

XVII.

XVIII.

XIX.

XX.

8,^

m

XXL

XXII.

XXIII.

XXIV. XXV.

XXVI. XXVII. XXVIII.

XXIX. XXX.

Primula Gambeliana.

pulchra and P. vaginata.

filipes and P. Clarkei.

CONCINNA, P. GLABRA, P. HeYDEI, and P. JUS-

COIDES.

obtusifolia, var. Griffithii.

elongata and P. Kingii.

Dickieana and P. Hookeri.

Stuartii, var. purpurea.

, Tar. Moorcroftiana.

tibetica, P. uniflora, and P. soldaneli.oides.

Elwesiana and P. tenella.

muscoides, var. tenuiloba, P. eeptans, P. sap-

phirina, and P. Stirtoniana.

Wattii and Androsace Croftii.

Androsace rotuxdifolia, var. Stracheyi.

GERANII FOLIA.

Chajlejasme, var. coronata, and A. rgtlndifolia,

var. Thomsoni.

selago and A. muscoidea.

"I Tacsonia floribunda, var. major,

J Passiflora eminula and P. lorifera.

Illustrating Dr. Masters's Passiflorea? of Ecuador and New Granada. Malformed leaves of Beyeria opaca, as described by J. G. Otto

Tepper. Sparmannia discolor. )

mlcrosteira c'urtisii. Schismatoclada PSYCHOTRIOIDES. Tetraspidicm LAXIFLORUM. Monachochlamys FLAGELLARI8.

FORSYTHIOPSIS BaRONI.

Being a new genus and species of plants from Madagascar, described by J. G. Baker.

;

Elongated pedicels, &c, of Didymoplexis pallens, illustrating W. B. Hemsley's paper on peculiarities of this Orchid.

Peridicm of Broomeia congregata, described by G. Murray.

Inflorescence of Hemicarex and allieB, illustratirg C. B. Clarke's paper thereon.

Plate XXXI.

XXXII. XXXIII. XXXIV.

XXXV.

XXXVI.

XXXVII.

XXXVIII.

XXXIX.

XL.

XLI.

XLII.

XLIII.

XLIV.

XLV.

XL VI.

XLVII.

XLVIII.

Alnus Richardsoni, examples of the fossil fruit as referred to in

J. Starkie Gardner's paper. Capsule development of Lychnis diuma.

of Sagina apetala and Spergula arvensis.

of Cerastiwm triviale and C. quatemelltim.

Capsules and Longitudinal sections on first appearance of

Ovules in various genera of Alsinece. Illustrating Origin of Placentas in the Tribe, by Miss G. Lister.

Rhvnchopetalum montanum, exterior views and structure of stem of, illustrating F. O. Bower's paper.

] Diagrams of Microscopic Sections, demonstrating J. R. Green's J observations on the Organs of Secretion in the Hypericaceae.

Illustrating J. G. Baker's Paper on the Tuber-bearing Species of

Solatium.

Solanum tuberosum. Maglia.

cardiophyllum.

commersoni.

Jamesii.

oxycarpum.

Structural details of Sphceria pocula, illustrating M. C. Cooke's

paper on the same. DiATOMACEiE from Socotra, illustrating F. Kitton's paper.

TEE JOUENAL

OF

THE LINNEAN SOCIETY.

On some Undescribed and Imperfectly known Indian Species of Primula and Androsace. By George Watt, M.B., CM., E.L.S., Professor of Botany, Bengal Educational Service, Calcutta.

[Read April 21, 1881.]

(Plates I.-XVIII.)

[Preliminary Note by Sir J. D. Hooker. During a brief fur- lough in England, passed at Kew, Dr. Watt commenced a study of the Indian species of Primula and Androsace, which he intended, when completed, to lay before the Linnean Society. His recall to India prevented his completion of the task, and gave him the opportunity of collecting in the Sikkim Himalaya (which has proved to be the richest province of the Order hitherto known) new species and additional information and observations, which he at once transmitted to Kew. Meanwhile the advance of the ' Flora of British India ' having rendered it necessary that the description of the whole Order should be taken up for that work, Dr. Watt obligingly made over his materials to me with the request that I should deal with them as I thought best. Under these circumstances, finding that the value and interest of Dr. Watt's labours centred in the number of new and remarkable species which he had provisionally named and, for the most part, accompanied with more or less complete diagnoses, I have with his approval reexamined his material, revised his characters, and offer them in accordance with his intentions, and in his name, to the Linnean Society. J. D. H.J

LINN. JOURN. BOTANf, VOL. IX. B

2 MB. G. WATT ON SOME

Introductory Remarks. Before proceeding to the description of the Indian species of Primula, a few words on the composition and geographical distribution of the genus may not be out of place. Altogether the genus comprises nearly one hundred species, which inhabit the temperate and cold regions of the Northern hemisphere, one only being found, and that in great abundance, in the Southern hemisphere on the shores of Euegia and in the Falkland Islands *. This is the most remarkable feature in the distribution of the genus, inasmuch as it is not known to be otherwise represented in the country intervening between the mountains of New Mexico and the extreme south of Patagonia a break of about 5000 miles. P.farinosa has the widest range of any species in the northern hemisphere, inhabit- ing the mountains of Europe from the Pyrenees eastward and northward, Central Asia, the mountains of North India, Japan, and North America from Labrador and Nova Scotia northward and westward to the Rocky Mountains, advancing southward along this range to Colorado. An interesting fact in the wide and interrupted distribution of P. farinosa, is the comparatively slight variation it exhibits throughout its range. The distribu- tion of the genus in the northern hemisphere offers some other noteworthy features. In round numbers, about forty species inhabit Europe, about the same number the mountains of North India, nine occur in North America, eight are recorded from Japan and China, one from the mountains of Java, one from Abyssinia, and Central Asia possesses a few endemic species in addition to those that are common to it and other regions. Of the nine North-American species, five also occur in North Asia or Europe, and three (very distinct species) are peculiar to the lofty mountains of Colorado, Arizona, and the adjoining terri- tories. On the eastern side of the continent only one species occurs as far south as Vermont and New York, where it reaches its southern limit. The Abyssinian species are endemic ; they differ from all others except the Himalayan P. floribunda in the complicate vernation of the leaves, a character only to be detected in their very young state ; and it may be mentioned that no species has hitherto been discovered in the Deccan. Another interesting

* This, the P. magellanica, Lehm., was identified by the late H. C. Wataon and Sir J. Hooker (' Flora Antarctica,' i. 337) with P. farinosa, from which, however, Sir J. Hooker informs me it is abundantly distinguished by the sessile white flowers and the large tuberculated seeds.

INDIAN SPECIES OF PUIMULA AND ANDBOSACE. 3

fact is the existence of two great centres of concentration of species, namely the mountains of Central Europe and of North India ; and although some of the species of the two regions over- lap in the intervening country, two only seem to be common to both regions. Of the Himalayan species, the only one besides P.farinosa that has a wide range outside of India is P. sibirica*. This inhabits Central and Northern Asia and Arctic America from Kamtschatka to G-reenland. Most of the species of this region are endemic, and some of them apparently local, whilst others extend from Sikkim to the north-west, and are so variable that they are difficult to define. A large number of forms have been referred to P. denticulata, P. Stuartii, and P. petiolaris, whether rightly or wrongly could not be determined. On the other hand, some forms have been raised to the rank of species, because with our present material they are readily distinguished. Whatever rank we assign them, the numerous forms of Primula constitute one of the most charming and characteristic features of the alpine vegetation of Northern India.

1. Primula, L. A. Leaves on long slender unwinged petioles, orbicular oblong or cordate, margins revolute in vernation. (See also P. tibetica.)

1. P. Q-ambeliana, Watt\ gemmis farinosis, foliis |-1 poll, diam., orbiculari-cordatis dentatis, umbellis paucifloris, bracteis 1-3 subulatis, corolla purpurea, ore obscure annulato, lobis orbi- cularibus emarginatis. (Tab. I.)

Sikkim Himalaya : Jongri, alt. 14,000 ft., G. Watt.

Allied to P. rotundifolia, but much smaller, with fewer and larger flowers. Leaves membranous, resembling those of P. pulckra, but not sheathed with large fleshy scales at the base. Sgape aud inflorescence quite glabrous. Corolla-limb concave, 1-1| inch diam. Ovary and stigma as in P. rotundifolia. Fruit unknown.

Plate I. fig. 1, whole plant, nat. size. 2, calyx ; 3, corolla laid open ; 4, ovary : all enlarged.

2. P. pulchba, Watt ; glaberriina, efarinosa, caule vaginis

* Sir J. Hooker informs me that he is convinced that a revision of the genus will result in the identification of several of the Western Himalayan species with North Asiatic and even European ones.

i)2

ME. G. WATT ON SOME

elongatis instructo, f oliis oblongis t. ovato-oblongis subtus glaucis basi rotundatis cordatisve, apicc rotundatis, marginibus undula- tis, scapo brevi 2-10-floro, bracteis mcmbranaceis filiformibus v. subulatis, floribus laxe umbellatis, corolla purpurea, tubo infundi- bulari,ore obscure annulato, lobis latis obcordatis. (Tab. II. A.)

Sikkim Himalaya: Lachen, alt. 12,000-14,000 ft., J. D. Hooker; Jongri, Watt.

Sheaths 1-1 1 inch long, embracing the petioles. Leaves few, blade 1-1§ inch, midrib stout, nerves few; petiole 1-1£ inch. Scape about equalling the petiole; bracts much shorter and more slender than the very unequal pedicels. Calyx |-i inch, terete. Corolla very large for the size of the plant, f-1 inch diam. Ovary globose, subacute ; stigma globose. Fruit unknown.

Plate II. A. fig. 1, plant, nat. size. 2, top of scape and bracts ; 3, calyx ; 4, portion of corolla laid open ; 5, ovary : all enlarged.

3. P. vaginata, Watt ; puberula v. glabrata, efarinosa, foliis £ poll. diam. orbicularibus profunde cordatis 7-lobis, petiolo basi lata vaginante, scapo 2-4-pollicari 3-6-floro, pedicellis ina^qui- longis, bracteis linearibus, calycis lobis brevibus, corolla lilacina, tubo infundibulari, ore annulato, lobis 2-4-fidis. (Tab. II. B.)

Sikkim Himalaya : La G-hep, alt. 10,000 ft., C. B. Clarke.

MooUtock small, woody. Petiole abruptly dilated at the base into the broad membranous sheath. Scape glabrous; pedicels |-£ inch. Calyx campanulate ; lobe ovate, acute. Corolla-tube not twice the length of the calyx ; limb £ inch diam. Ovary globose, acute. Fruit unknown.

Plate II. B. fig. 1, whole plant, nat. size. 2, leaf; 3, bract ; 4, calyx ; 5, portion of corolla laid open : all enlarged.

4. P. Clabkei, Watt; glaberrima, foliis 1-li-pollicaribus orbiculari- v. elliptico-cordatis dentatis v. crenatis apice rotun- datis, scapo 0, pedicellis petiolos ssepe ajquantibus, calyce late campanulato, lobis brevibus, corolla tubo gracili, ore exannulato, limbo piano, lobis 2-fidis, capsula globosa inclusa. (Tab. III. B.)

Kashmir : at Poosiana, alt. 7000 ft., C. B. Clarke.

A very singular species, with the habit of Viola palustris. Mootstock slender, woody. Leaves membranous, nerves very ender ; petiole 2-4 inches, very slender, base narrowly sheath- ing. Pedicels 2-3, very slender. Corolla-tube £ inch, lobes

INDIAN SPECIES OF PRTMULA AND ANDROSACE- 5

narrow. Ovary globose, acute ; stigma capitate. Seeds sub- globose, black, minutely papillose, -^ inch diam.

Plate III. B. fig. 1, plant, nat. size; 2, calyx, enlarged.

5. P. filipes, Watt ; sparse pubescens, efarinosa, f oliis 1-1^ poll, diam., ovato-oblongis v. orbiculari-cordatis integerrimis lobu- latis v. dentatis, petiolo gracillimo, scapo 6-8-floro foliis breviore, calycis lobis latis, corolla carnea, ore exannulato, limbo piano, capsula globosa inclusa, seminibus minimis lsevibus. Primula, Griff. Itin. Notes, 123. n. 396 ; Notul. iv. 299 ; Ic. PI. Asiat. t. 485. f. 1. (Tab. III. A.)

Bhotan : on rocks near Chuka, alt. 6500 ft., Griffith.

Hootstock long, woody. Leaves membranous. Scape about equalling the petioles, slender in flower, thickened in fruit; bracts small, subulate. Calyx broadly campanulate. Corolla-tube \ inch, three times as long as the calyx, funnel-shaped ; limb as much broad ; lobes obovate, 2-lobed. Seeds ^0-inch, dark brown, obtusely angled. Closely allied to the Chinese P. obconica, Hance (P. poculiformis, Hook, f., Bot. Mag. t. 6582), but a much smaller and more delicate plant, with a longer corolla-tube.

Plate III. A. fig. 1, plant, nat. size. 2, bracts ; 3, calyx ; 4, portion of corolla laid open : all enlarged.

B. Leaves sessile, or base narrowed into a broad winged petiole, margins re volute in vernation. (Petiole sometimes slender : P. tibetica.)

6. P. T£mJiVi,Wati i parvula, stolonifera, foliis |-|-pollicaribus sessilibus lanceolatis acuminatis grosse dentatis subtus farinosis, scapo valido 5-x -floro, floribus sessilibus, biacteis parvis basi saccatis, corollas tubo calyce longiore, limbo piano. (Tab. IV. C.)

Western Tibet : alt. 12,000-14,000 ft., T. Thomson ; Taglang, Heyde.

Densely tufted ; stolons short, leafy. Leaves vosvl&te or erect, those on the stolons subsecund ; teeth often subrecurved. Scape 1-4 inches, strict, and inflorescence mealy. Calyx campanulate, cleft to the middle. Corolla pale lilac, jr inch diam. Capsule in- cluded, oblong. Seeds -fa inch, pale, obtusely angled, minutely papillose.

Plate IV. C. fig. 1, plant, nat. size. 2, leaf ; 3, bracts ; 4, calyx : all enlarged.

7. P. concinna, Watt ; dense caespitosa, pusilla, foliis |-1-

6 MR O. WATT ON SOME

pollicaribus, oblanceolatis acutis v. obtusis integerrimis v. crenu- latis subtus farinosis, scapo brevi 2-4-floro, pedicellis fructu elon- gatis, bracteis basi gibbis, calyce corollae tubum brevem sequante, ore corollas contracto annulato, limbo piano, lobis obcordatis. (Tab. IV. A.)

Sikkim Himalaya : on the Tibetan passes, alt. 15,000-17,000 ft., J. D. Hooker, G. Watt.

Tufts \ inch high. Leaves narrowed into the short petiole, margins revolute. Scape rarely longer than the leaves ; bracts linear-oblong, much shorter than the pedicels, which in fruit often much exceed the scape. Corolla \ inch diam., pink or white. Capsule \ inch long, cylindric- oblong. Seeds nearly orbicular, t^j7 inch diam., a little flattened on one side, quite smooth, pale brown. This resembles a reduced state of P. farinosa; but, besides the smaller size, the longer capsules, shorter corolla-tube, and flattened seeds well distinguish it.

Plate IV. A. fig. 1, plant, nat. size. 2, calyx ; 3, portion of corolla laid open ; 4, ovary ; 5, calyx and capsule : all enlarged.

8. P. tibettca, Watt ; pumila, csesjntosa, efarinosa, foliis |— | -pollicaribus petiolatis coriaceis ellipticis acutis v. obtusis in- tegerrimis, scapo brevissimo 1-5-floro, bracteis linearibus basi gibbis, pedicellis scapo multo longiore, calyce tubuloso corollae tubum sequante, corolla? ore annulato, limbo piano, lobis profunde obcordatis. (Tab. XI. A.)

Tibetan frontier of the Himalaya : Gyanama, north of Ku- maon, alt. 15,500 ft., StracJiey Sf Winterbottom; Kangra Lama, north of Sikkim, alt. 16,000-17,000 ft., J. D. Hooker.

"Whole plant 1-3 inches high, quite glabrous. Leaves longer than the scape, usually obtuse, coriaceous, quite entire, nerves very indistinct, base rounded or acute ; petiole slender, not winged. Scape 1-5-flowered ; bracts linear-oblong, erect, pro- duced downwards into a gibbosity ; pedicels much longer than the scape, often six times as long, erect, stiff. Calyx 5-angled, shortly cleft, lobes obtuse. Corolla pale pink, tube equalling the calyx ; limb \ inch diam. ; lobes broadly deeply obcordate. Ovary oblong. Capsule cylindric, more or less exserted. This is a near ally of P. sibirica, from which it conspicuously differs in the small size, singular shortness of the scape, and great length of the pedicels. The Kangra-Lama and Gyanama specimens entirely accord.

INDIAN SPECIES OE PBTMULA AND ANDROSACE. 7

Plate XI. A. fig. 1, plant, nat. size. 2, bracts ; 3, portion of corolla laid open ; 4, ovary ; 5, calyx and capsule : all enlarged.

9. P. glabba, Klatt in Linncea, xxxvii. p. 500 ; inflorescentia farinosa, foliis |-l-pollicaribus obovato-spathulatis acutis v. ob- tusis erosis v. dentatis, scapo gracili laxi- v. donsifloro, floribus sessilibus v. breviter pedicellatis, bracteis brevibus basi gibbosis, calyce campanulato lobis brevibus late obovatis obtusis, corolla exannulata, lobis brevibus bifidis. (Tab. IY. B.)

Sikkim Himalaya, alt. 13,000-15,000 ft., J. D. Hooker, O. B. Clarice, G. Watt.

Tufted, 1^-3 inches high. Leaves rosulate, spreading, small for the size of the plant, ^-1 inch long, rather thin, rigid when dry, tip rounded, base narrowed into a broad or slender petiole, teeth horizontal or recurved. Scape tall in comparison with the leaves, slender, erect, usually many-flowered ; bracts subulate, very small, base gibbous ; flowers small, often in a rounded head. Calyx very different from any allied species, the broad lobes not one third the length of the tube, and as long as the corolla- tube. Co- rolla blue-purple, limb |— | inch diam. Capsule oblong, included. Seeds coarsely papillar. This remarkable little species resembles P. pusilla, "Wall., in habit ; but the bracts are very different, and the mouth of the corolla is glabrous.

Plate IV. B. fig. 1, plant, nat. size. 2, bracts ; 3, calyx ; 4, portion of corolla laid open, with ovary and stamen ; 5, seed : all enlarged.

10. P. obtusifolia, Boyle, III. p. 311, t. 77. f. 1 ; efarinosa v. foliis subtus et inflorescentia farinosis, foliis 2-6-pollicari- bus obovatis v. elliptico-spathulatis acutis v. obtusis integris cre- natis erosis v. grosse dentatis, basi angustatis v. cordatis, petiolo late alato, scapo robusto plurifloro, bracteis ovatis v. subulatis basi saepe connatis, corolla? purpurea) tubo calyce duplo longiore, ore annulato, lobis obcordatis, ovario acuto, capsula globosa calyci immersa. Duly in DC. Prod. viii. 42. (Tab. V.)

Eastebn and "Western Tempeeate Himalaya : from Kuna- wur (Boyle) to Bhotan (Griffith), ascending to 12,000 ft. in Sikkim.

Bootstock stout, fleshy. Leaves very variable. Scape 6-10 inches ; bracts |-^ inch ; pedicels \-l\ inch, stout in fruit. Calyx usually mealy, cupular or broadly campanulate in fruit ; lobes

MR. G. WATT OS SOME

triangular-ovate or linear-oblong, acute or obtuse. Corolla bright purple, limb f-1 inch diam., often puberulous. Seeds large, •^jj-inch diam., subglobose, coarsely papillose.

Entire-leaved specimens of this fine species resemble at first sight broad-leaved states of P. Stuartii, var. purpurea,hom which the thin texture of the leaves, the acute top of the ovary, and the capsule at once distinguish it. There are two forms of it, an Eastern and a Western, of which the Western extends to and overlaps the Eastern. Though differing at first sight, their diffe- rences reside only in the leaves, and these present intermediate states.

Var. 1. Boylei; foliis obovato-spathulatis obtusis erosis v. subintegris subtus farinosis. Kunawur to Sikkim.

Var. 2. Griffithii, Watt ; foliis ovato-cordatis acutis grosse dentatis. Bhotan, Griffith ; Sikkim, J. D. Hooker.

Plate V. fig. 1, plant, nat. size. 2, bracts on scape ; 3, bract ; 4, calyx ; 5, ovary : all enlarged.

11. P. elongata, Watt ; foliis longe petiolatis 3-5-pollica- ribus membranaceis obovatis v. oblanceolatis obtusis crenulatis subtus farinosis v. concoloribus, scapo gracili paucifloro, floribus subsessilibus, bracteis brevibus subulatis basi simplicibus, calyce angusto ad medium 5fido, lobis lanceolatis, corolla? aurese tubo valde elongato fauce infundibulari exannulata, lobis rotundato- obcordatis crenatis, ovario subacuto. {Herb. Ind. Or., Hook. f. $ Thorns., Primula, no. 14.) (Tab. VI.)

Sikkim Himalaya : Zemu valley, alt. 12,000-13,000 ft., J. D Hooker.

Rootstock stout, tuberous, giving off broad fleshy sheaths with membranous margins which embrace the petioles. Leaves #-14 inch diam., narrowed into the winged, rarely slender petiole, midrib stout, nerves slender, crenatures regular. Scape stout, twice as long as the leaves, upper part and inflorescence mealy, 6-8-flowered ; bracts subulate from a broad base ; pedicels very short. Calyx cleft halfway down into narrow lobes, much shorter than the corolla-tube. Corolla golden yellow, tube twice as long as the calyx and expanding into a funnel-shaped throat, together | inch long. This more resembles P. obtusifolia perhaps than any other other species, from which the long corolla-tube and throat and crenate lobes distinguish it. It was collected by Sir J. Hooker in 1849 and never since.

INDIAN SPECIES OF PKIMULA AND ANDROSACE. 9

Plate VI. fig. 1, plant, nat. size. 2, bracts ; 3, calyx ; 4, por tion of corolla laid open ; 5, ovary : all enlarged.

12. P. Kingii, Watt ; glaberrima, efarinosa, f oliis confertis 2-3-pollicaribus elliptico-lanceolatis acutis integerrimis v. obscure crenulatis, petiolo late vaginante membranaceo, costa valida, scapo gracili elongato 4-5-floro, bracteis e basi lata subulatis, pedicellis brevibus puberulis, calyce anguste subcampanulato, corolla rubro- purpurea late iufundibulari puberula breviter 5-loba, limbo con- cavo, lobis retusis intus glabris. (Tab. VII.)

Sikkim Himalaya : at Natong {Herb. Hort. Calcutt.).

Leaves spreading, subcoriaceous, pale beneath when dry. Scape G-10 inches high, very slender; bracts very unequal. Calyx £ inch long, obtusely angled. Corolla |-| inch diam., claret- coloured. Ovary with a rounded 5-lobed crown. Fruit not seen.

Plate VII. fig. 1, plant, nat. size ; 2, calyx ; 3, part of corolla laid open ; 4, ovary : all enlarged.

13. P. Dickieana, Watt; glaberrima, efarinosa, foliis ellip- tico-obovatis v. oblanceolatis acutis integerrimis v. serratis sessi- libus v. petiolatis, petiolo basi anguste membranaceo, scapo elon- gato 2-6-fioro, floribus magnis sessilibus v. breviter pedicellatis, bracteis linearibus v. subulatis, corollae fiava> tubo calyce duplo longiore intus hirsuto, limbo piano, disco pubescente. (Tab. VIII. A.)

Sikkim Himalaya : Lachen, on open banks, alt. 10,000- 13,000 ft., J. JD. Hooker.

Iiooistock stout, crowned with short sheaths that embrace the petioles. Leaves 1-3 inches, narrowed into broadly winged petioles, midrib stout, nerves indistinct. Scape stout, 3-10 inches ; bracts membranous, sometimes inserted on the very short pedicel ; flowers drooping. Calyx large, half as long as the corolla- tube aud funnel-shaped throat. Corolla 1 inch diam., tube and throat hairy within, lobes rounded and bifid. Top of ovary obtuse, thickened. Fruit not seen. A beautiful species, re- sembling small states of P. Stuartii ; but the leaves are, when not entire, serrate, the corolla-disk is pubescent, and tube hairy within ; it is scentless. It has not been found except by Sir J. Hooker in 1848.

Plate VIII. A. fig. 1, plant, nat. size. 2, bract ; 3, calyx ; 4, portion of corolla laid open ; 5, ovary : all enlarged.

10

MB. G. WATT ON SOME

14. P. sapphibina, HooJc.f. Sf Thomson, Serb. Ind. Or., Prim, no. 32 ; parvula, glabra v. puberula, foliis £-| poll, longis obo- vato-spathulatis obtusis grosse v. subpirmatifido dentatis, scapo filiformi 1-4-floro, bracteis ovato-oblongis, floribus sessilibus nu- tantibus, calycis tubo brevi tereti lobis obtusis, corolla subcam- panulata pruinosa, lobis brevibus bifidis. (Tab. XIII. C.)

Sikkim Himalaya: Lachen valley, alt. 13,000 ft., J. D. HooJcer.

Leaves forming small rosettes, |-i inch diam., teeth large and deep, with scattered white hairs above ; petiole very short. Scape 1-2 inches. Corolla | inch diam., bright or pale blue, hoary. Capsule included.— A very elegant little species

Plate XIII. C. fig. 1, plant, nat. size. 2, leaf; 3, bract; 4, calyx ; 5, corolla laid open : all enlarged.

15. P. soldanelloides, Watt ; parvula, glaberrima, efarinosa, foliis |-|-pollicaribus ovatis grosse crenatis v. subpinnatifidis, scapo capillari 1-floro, flore magno nutante ebracteato, calycis lobis oblongo-ovatis obtusis, corolla alba late infundibulari, lobis brevibus grosse dentatis. (Tab. XI. C.)

Sikkim Himalaya : Kankola pass, J. B. HooJcer ; Patang-la {Herb. Hort. Calcutt.).

Leaves |-| inch long, base cuneate. Scape 1-2 inches, very slender, rigid ; flower nodding. Calyx campanulate, cleft half- way. Corolla white, with hardly any tube proper, expanding from near the base into the dilated limb, |-| inch long and broad. Stamens at the base of the corolla ; filaments distinct. Ovary minute, globose, top hardened obtuse.— A very beautiful little plant, allied to P. soldanelloides and P. sapphirina and tenella. A group confined to Sikkim, as far as is known.

Plate XI. C. fig. 1, plant, nat. size. 2, leaf; 3, calyx ; 1, part of corolla laid open ; 5, stamens : all enlarged.

16. P. Wattii, King in Herb. Calcutt. ; foliis oblongo-oblan- ceolatis in petiolum angustatis obtusis grosse lobulato-crenatis v. dentatis, laxe molliter pilosis, crenis irregulariter dentatis v. inte- gris, scapo elongato multifloro, floribus capitatis pendulis, bracteis membranaceis, calyce maximo cupulari laxo membranaceo irregu- lariter lobato et inciso-dentato, corolla violacea tubo calyci *equi- longo, limbo late infundibulari 5-lobo lobis crenato-dentatis. (Tab. XIV. A.)

INDIAN SPECIES OP PRIMULA AND ANDROSACE. 11

Sikkim Himalaya : Chola Natong (King).

Bootstoch small . Leaves few, 2-4 inches, membranous, -|-§ inch diam., hairs flexuous ; petiole rather slender, sometimes equalling the blade. Scape 5-6 inches ; head of flower l|-2 inches diam. ; bracts from narrow-lanceolate to almost rounded. Calyx ^ inch diam., very loose, open, and thin, veined. Corolla glabrous within and without ; tube | inch ; limb twice as long, and broad at the mouth. Stamens at the mouth of the tube ; anthers oblong ; fila- ments very short. Ovary globose, top rounded; style very short ; stigma broadly capitate, truncate. A very beautiful plant, closely allied to P. unifiora and P. soldanelloid.es, having the large mem- branous calyx of the former, which distinguishes these from all other species.

Plate XIV. A. fig. 1, plant, not. size. 2, bracts ; 3, calyx ; 4, portion of corolla laid open ; 5, ovary : all enlarged.

17. P. Stuartii, Wall, in Roxb. Fl. Ind., ed. Carey Sf Wall. ii. p. 20.

Throughout the subalpine and alpine regions of the Hima- laya and in Tibet bordering it, alt. 12,000-16,000 ft. ; Afghan- istan.

The following remarks upon this species are supplied by Sir J. D. Hooker:

"This is one of the most common and puzzling of the Himalayan Primulte, if, indeed, there be not two or more species included under it, with possibly hybrid intermediates. P. denticulata, which inhabits lower levels, and P. petiolaris, from still lower, are the only equally wide-spread common and protean Himalayan congeners. The original P. Stuartii was founded by Wallich on a yellow-flowered plant well figured in the ' Botanical Magazine ' (tab. 4356) ; P. purpurea, published later by Eoyle (111. PI. Himal. t. 77. f. 2), was founded on a purple-flowered one, which I find it impossible to distinguish by any other character from P. Stuartii, the two presenting a parallel series of varieties in the size, shape, mealiness, and crenature of the leaves, number of flowers and bracts, and the shape and comparative lengths of the calyx-lobes, and capsule. P. Moorcroftiana, of Wallich, founded on miserable fragments collected in Western Tibet by Moorcroft, is a third supposed species, which is obviously a small state of purpurea. The following is the best disposition of the series of

12 MR. G. WATT ON SOME

forms that I can suggest. I suspect that all are forms of the beautiful P. nivalis, Pallas, of Siberia and Central Asia."

Vae. 1. Stuartii typica; foliis 5-10-pollicaribus anguste oblau- ceolatis spathulatisve acutis crebre argute denticulato-crenatis rarius integerrimis subtus flavo-farinosis, inflorescentia farinosn, calycis lobis linearibus lanceolatisve acutis v. obtusis, corolla? aurea? lobis orbicularibus et emarginatis v. obcordatis integris v. subdentatis. P. Stuartii, Wall. Cat. 606 in part; Tent. Fl. Nep. t. 34 ; Don, Prod. Fl. Nep. 80 ; Duly in DC. Prodr. viii. 41 ; Hook. Sot. Mag. t. 4356.

Vae. 2. purpurea ; foliis ut in var. 1, sed rarius dentatis v. cre- natis ssepius latioribus, floribus interdum in verticillos superpo- sitos dispositis, calycis lobis interdum fere pollicaribus lineari- oblongis obtusis, corolla pallide v. saturate purpurea, lobis obcor- datis v. bifidis, capsula ^— 1-pollicari. P. purpurea, Boyle, III. Fl. Himal. 311, t. 77. f . 2 : Duly in DC. Prodr. viii. 40 ; Wall. Cat. 606 (e Kumaon). P. macrophylla, Don, Prod. Fl. Nep. 80. P. Jaeschkiana, Kerner in Bericht. des Naturwiss. medicin. Vereins Innspr. Jahrg. i. Heft ii. 97. (Tab. IX.)

Yae. 3. Moorcrqftiana. Minor, vix v. non farinosa, foliis ob- lanceolatis acutis ssepissime integerrimis, scapo breviore paucifloro, calycis lobis angustis acuminatis, corolla purpurea. P. Moor- croftiana, Wall. Cat. 4988. Western Tibet. (Tab. X.)

Vae. 4. macrocarpa ; foliis subtus farinosis 2-5-pollicaribus oblanceolatis obtusis acutisve, calyce majore |~f -pollicari fere 5- partito segmentis lineari-oblongis obtusis coriaceis, capsula pollicari.— Sikkim Himalaya, alt. 15,000-17,000 ft., J. D. Hooker.

Vae. 5. lineariloba ; corolla? purpurea? lobis angustis divari- catis. Tibet north of Sikkim, at a great elevation. Flowers alone of this were procured by Sir J. D. Hooker, who does not doubt their being referable to a very starred form of var. purpurea.

Plate IX. P. Stuartii rax. purpurea. Fig. 1, plant, nat. size- 2, calyx ; 3, ovary ; 4, calyx and capsule : all enlarged.

Plate X. P. purpurea var. Moorcroftiana. Fig. I, plant, nat. size. 2, calyx ; 3, ovary ; 4, calyx and capsule : all enlarged.

18. P. unifloea, Klatt in Lmncea, xxxvii. p. 500 ; efarinosa, foliis parvis petiolatis orbicularibus v. late ovatis grosse v. sub- pinnatifidc crenatis v. dentatis, scapo gracillimo 1-2-floro, bracteis

INDIAN SPECIES OF PEIMULA AND ANDKOSACE. 13

minutis, floribus magnis sessilibus nutantibus, calycis profunde 5-lobi segmentis quadratis, corolla late infundibulari, lobis brevi- bus latis grosse dentatis. (Tab. XI. B.)

Sikkim Himalaya: on the Kankola Pass, alt. 15,000 ft., J. D. Hooker.

Soot stock small, with slender fibrous roots. Leaves £-1 inch, including the petiole, rather slender, sparsely pubescent, base acute or truncate. Scapes one or more, tall for the size of the plant, 1-3 inches, slender ; bracts oblong. Calyx nearly | inch long, campanulate, membranous, segments almost truncate, apicu- late, sometimes toothed. Corolla pale lilac ; tube short, gradu- ally expanding into a limb f-1 inch broad ; lobes short, often 3- fid, the intermediate lobe very short. Stamens near the base of the corolla. Ovary globose. A very remarkable species, unfor- tunately named, as it has usually two flowers, of which one is often imperfect ; no other species has flowers so large in compa- rison with the foliage.

Plate XI. B. fig. 1, plant, nat. size; 2, leaf; 3, scape and flower (one imperfect) ; 4, bract ; 5, calyx ; 6, ovary : all but 1 and 3 enlarged.

1.9. P. tenella, King in Herb. Calcutt. ; glaberrima, efarinosa, foliis i-pollicaribus obovatis v. trapezoideis supra medium grosse crenato-dentatis, scapo filiformi 1-floro, bractea minuta, calycis lobis obtusis, corolla; tubo gracili fauce late infundibulari, lobis latis profunde obcordatis. (Tab. XII. B.)

CiiuMBi Valley, at Phari (between Sikkim and Bhotan), alt. about 15,000 ft.

liootstock stout. Leaves mealy all over, especially beneath, subacute, petiole broadly winged. Scape very slender; bract close under the flower, shorter than the calyx. Corolla bluish white, tube | inch ; limb f inch diam. Stamens near the base of the tube. Ovary subacute, top thickened ; stigma large, capi- tate.— A remarkable little species, very unlike any other.

Plate XII. B. fig. 1, plant, nat. size. 2, bract and calyx ; 3, portion of corolla laid open, with stamens and ovary : all enlarged.

20. P. Elwesiana, King in Herb. Calcutt. ; efarinosa, foliis 2-3-pollicaribus oblanceolatis subacutis integerrimis coriaceis,

14 MB. O. WATT ON SOME

nervis obscuris, scapo robusto elongato floreque magno solitario pubescenti-tomentoso, bractea 0, calyce brevi 5-partito segmentis ovato-lauccolatis, corollco infundibularis f poll, longa) lobis brc- vibus obovato-oblongis crenatis. (Tab. XII. A.)

Sikkim Himalaya, alt. about 12,000 ft. {King).

JEiootstock very stout, crowned with broad sheathing scales, which embrace the petioles. Leaves narrowed into broad winged puberulous petioles. Scape 6-7 inches ; flower often 1 inch long and broad across the limb, pubescent all over. Anthers linear, near the mouth of the corolla. Ovary very small, conical, acute ; style filiform, stigma minute, truncate. A very remarkable and beautiful species, quite unlike any other.

Plate XII. A. fig. 1, plant, nat. size. 2, calyx ; 3, stamen ; 4, ovary : all enlarged.

21. P. eeptans, Hook.f.; minuta, dense csespitosa, puberula, efarinosa, caule repente intricatim ramoso, foliis petiolatis cum petiolo |~;j-pollicaribus orbicularibus convexis lobulatis v. grosse dentatis, scapo 0, floribus subsolitariis breviter pedicellatis erectis foliis multo majoribus, corollse tubo calyce triplo longiore, fauce infundibulari, lobis profunde bifidis. P. Stracheyi (partim), I&rfl. Ind. Or., Rook.f. Sf Thorns. (Tab. XIII. B.)

"Westebn Himalaya : Bargi-Kang Pass* north of Kumaon, alt. 14,500 ft., Strachey Sf Winterbottom ; Kashmir, Bargila, alt. 14,500 ft., O. B. Clarke.

Stem very stout for the size of the plant, horizontal, rooting below and giving off above tufts of leaves and flowers. Leaves with the stout petiole about as long as the blade or longer, margins recurved, lobules or teeth acute or obtuse. Bracts at the base of the pedicel sessile amongst the leaves, rarely on a very short peduncle ; pedicel shorter than the calyx. Corolla-tube nearly | inch long, limb about as broad, pale purple. Ovart) globose, top acute ; stigma globose. Fruit not seen. This inter- esting little species was partly confounded with P. minutissima in the distribution of Herb. Ind. Or., Hook. f. & Thorns.

Plate XIII. B. fig. 1, plant, nat. size. 2, leaf ; 3, bracts and calyces ; 4, part of corolla laid open : all enlarged.

22. P. Hookebi, Watt ; pusilla, dense csespitosa, efarinosa,

* In the sheets of the ' Flora of British India,' which have now passed through the presd, this locality was accidentally omitted.

INDIAN SPECIES OE PBIMULA AND ANDEOSACE. 15

foliis g-1-pollicaribus anguste obovato-oblongis v. spathulatis obtusis argute dentatis, dentibus reeurvis, costa lata, scapo 0 v. brevissimo, floribus 1-3 breviter pedicellatis, calyce cupulari v. campanulato glanduloso, dentibus brevibus latis acutis, corolla; tubo late cylindraeeo calyce duplo longiore, lobis rotundatis bre- viter bifidis. Serb. Ind. Or., Hook. f. Sf Thorns., Prim. no. 25. (Tab. VIII. B.)

Sikkim Himalaya : Lacben, alt. 12,000 ft., J. D. Hooker.

Boots of thick fleshy fibres. Leaves dark green, rather fleshy, rarely narrowed into a petiole, teeth often recurved, the outer reduced to oblong fleshy scales with toothed tips. Corolla white, tube about | inch long, limb as broad. Ovary globose, top acute ; stigma globose.

Plate VIII. B. fig. 1 , plant, not. size. 2, leaf ; 3, bract ; 4, calyx ; 5, part of corolla laid open : all enlarged.

23. P. muscoides, HooTc.f.', minuta, dense csespitosa, glaberrima, efarinosa, foliis -jig— y^-pollicaribus sessilibus ovato-oblongis con- vexis apicibus grosse dentatis, costa crassa lata, scapo 0, floribus solitariis subsessilibus 2-bracteatis, corollae tubo calyce brevi profunde 5fido duplo longiore cylindraeeo, lobis brevibus. Serb. Ind. Or., Sook.j. Sf Thorns., Prim. no. 23. (Tab. IV. D.)

Sikkim Himalaya : Kankola Pass, alt. 15,000 ft., J. D. Sooker.

Much the smallest species of the genus, forming moss-like tufts amongst the roots of creeping alpine plants. It is closely allied to P. Sookeri ; but the shape of the leaves is quite different, the flowers very much smaller.

Plate IV. D. fig. 1, plant, nat. size. 2, leaves ; 3, bracts and fit wer ; 4, calyx : all enlarged.

Vab. ? tenuiloba. Leaves with short broad petioles ; corolla larger, tube longer, slightly hairy, lobes longer, very narrow, cleft into two linear spreading lobes. Sikkim Himalaya, at iTemutong, alt. 14,000 ft. {Serb. Ind. Or., Sook. /. Sf Thorns., Prim, no. 22). This may prove a different species, but is undoubtedly nearly allied to P. muscoides.

Plate XIII. A. fig. 1, plant, nat. size. 2, leaf ; 3, bract and calyx ; 4, portion of corolla laid open : all enlarged.

24. P. Stibtoniana,^^ ; pusilla, dense ca?spitosa, glanduloso- puberula, efarinosa, fouis ^-pollicaribus obovato-spathulatis ob-

16 ME. G. WATT ON SOME

tusis planis argute dentatis, costa tenui, scapo 0, floribus solita- riis, pedicellis brevibus gracilibus, corollse tubo calyce duplo longiore superne infundibulari, lobis profunde bifidis integris v. crenulatis. (Tab. XIII. D.)

Sikkim Himalaya : Kanglanamo Pass, alt. 14,000-16,000 ft., G. Watt.

Habit of P. BZookeri ; but the leaves are flat and of a very different shape, the calyx has acute teeth, and the corolla-tube is not cylindric. Bracts 0, or very slender and placed on the pedicel. Corolla bright purple, |—§ inch diam., glabrous. Ovary obovoid, top thickened retuse, stigma capitate.

Plate XIII. D. fig. 1, plant, nat. size. 2, scape, bracts, and calyx ; 3, part of corolla laid open ; 4, ovary : all enlarged.

2. Andbosace, L.

1. A. botttndifolia, HardwicTce (non Wallich, Smith, et Be Candolle). A. incisa, Wall. Gat. 616, et in Boxb. Fl. Bid., ed. Wall. Sf (Jarey, ii. 14, excl. obs.

11 There has been much confusion regarding this plant, through Wallich and Sir James Smith having taken for it the little annual A. saxifragcefolia, Bunge, of the tropical plains of Bengal. This is the more extraordinary; for Hardwicke's description of his rotundifolia is not only accurate, but distinctive as regards the toothed involucral bracts ; and he further states that it is a native of the highest mountains of Shreenugur, namely